Question.1: Name two prominent industrial areas of Russia in the 1890s.
Answer: St. Petersburg and Moscow.
Question.2: Who was Lenin? What were his three demands?
Answer: Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party in Russia. His three demands were -
(1) War to be ended.
(2) Land to be transferred to the peasants.
(3) Banks to be nationalized.
Question.3: Give the names of two Indian authors who wrote about Soviet socialism.
Answer: Rabindranath Tagore and Jawaharlal Nehru.
Question.4: Who were ‘Bolsheviks’ ?
Answer: Bolsheviks were the majority group of the workers of Russia, who under the leadership of Lenin, believed in the revolutionary methods for bringing about changes in the society and the state. In their opinion, the parliamentary methods would not be able to bring about any changes in a country like Russia where no democratic rights existed and where there was no Parliament. Ultimately, it was these Bolsheviks who were able to bring about a successful revolution in Russia in 1917 and they changed the whole structure of the state and the society.
Question.5: Who were ‘Mensheviks’ ?
Answer: Mensheviks were the other part of the Russian workers who believed in Parliamentary methods and participation in elections for running the state and the society. This group was in minority and hence, its members were known as ‘Mensheviks’. These people favoured parties as were existing in France and Germany which took part in elections to the legislature of their countries. But this party failed to achieve anything because the Tsar of Russia did not believe in Parliamentary methods.
Question.6: What is ‘Bloody Sunday’ ?
Answer: In January 1905, on one Sunday, the workers took out a peaceful procession led by Father Gapon in order to present a petition to Tsar. But when the procession reached the Winter Palace, they were attacked by the Police and Cossacks who fired at indiscriminately resulting in the death of more than a hundred workers while many more were wounded. Because of this massacre, the said Sunday in history is known as the ‘Bloody Sunday’ which started a series of events that became to be known as the 1905 Revolution.
Question.7: What is meant by Russian Steam Roller ?
Answer: This was the name given to the Imperial Russian Army.
Question.8: Who was Marfa Vasileva ?
Answer: Marfa Vasileva was a brave woman worker, a milling machine operator, who organized a successful strike on her own capacity.
Question.9: Give single reason why did peasants greet the October Revolution.
Answer: Because October Revolution meant for them free land and an end of war.
Question.10: Define the term ‘Autocracy’.
Answer: Autocracy is the system of government where the ruler is all in all and the people have no power and right.
Question.11: Outline the main objectives of the Russian Revolutionaries.
Answer: The Russian Revolution took place in Russia in 1917. The following were the main demands and objectives of the Russian Revolutionaries:
Question.12: Give two main features of Communism.
Answer: 1. According to Communism, both capitalism and private properties are evil and need to be abolished. 2. Everybody should have right work and it is the workers, who should have control over the means of production, not the capitalists.
Question.13: Outline the important and immediate effects of the Russian Revolution on Russia.
Answer: The most important and immediate effects of Russian Revolution on Russia were:
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