AGRICULTURE - Class 8, Resources and Development

NCERT Social Geography - CBSE Notes and Questions

CBSE Notes and Questions

Class 8, Social Science (Geography)

Chapter 4, Resources and Development


CBSE Notes - Important Terms

Primary Activities

Primary activities are those economic activities which are connected with extraction, gathering and production of natural resources. e.g. - Extraction (mining), collection, fishing, agriculture, gathering etc.

Secondary Activities

Secondary activities are those economic activities which are connected with processing of natural resources. e.g. - Manufacturing steel, baking of bread, weaving of cloth etc.

Tertiary Activities

The activities which provide support to primary & secondary activities through services are termed as tertiary activities. e.g. - Banking, transport, trade, media, advertising etc.

Organic Farming

Organic farming is that type of farming in which organic manure & natural pesticides are used in place of chemicals and in which no genetic modification is done to increase the yield of the crop.

Contour Ploughing

The practice of ploughing against the slopes on the hill is known as contour ploughing.

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Short type CBSE Questions with their Answers

Question.1: What is arable land?

Answer: Arable land is the land on which crops are grown.

Question.2: Enumerate the areas of nomadic herding.

Answer: Arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts in India like - Rajasthan, J & K.

Question.3: What are the livestock of nomadic herding?

Answer: Yak, sheep, camel, and goats.

Question.4: What is Commercial farming?

Answer: Commercial farming is the type of farming in which crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in the market.

Question.5: Explain Mixed farming.

Answer: Mixed farming is that type of farming in which land is used for growing food crops, fodder crops and rearing of livestock. It is practiced in Europe, Eastern USA, Argentina, Southeast Australia, New Zealand and Africa.

Question.6: Name the major agricultural crops.


  • Food crops: rice, wheat, millets and maize.
  • Fiber crops: jute & cotton.
  • Beverage crops: tea & coffee.

Question.7: Which countries are known for rice & wheat productions?

Answer: Rice Producing: China, India, Japan, Srilanka, Bangladesh and Egypt.

Wheat Producing: USA, Argentina, Canada, Russia, Ukraine, India & Australia.

Question.8: Name the Golden Fiber. Where is it grown?

Answer: Jute is known as Golden Fiber. It is grown mainly in India & Bangladesh.

Question.9: How is agriculture is the most widely adopted occupation of the humans?

Answer: Agriculture is the oldest and most widely adopted occupation of humans. More than 50% of the world population is engaged in agriculture. It continues to be the major occupation of people in the developing countries of the world. Nearly 67% of the total population of India is engaged in agriculture.

Long type CBSE Questions with their Answers

Question.1: What is meant by ‘nomadic herding’?

Answer: Nomadic herding means a particular pattern of animal husbandry in which people are merely herdsmen and they are continuously on the move along with their families and cattle in search of food and water supply. The word ‘Nomad’ means supporting one-self by moving from place to place. This type of movement and settlement goes on. Pastures are limited and the number of nomadic herdsmen is also very small. This occupation is adopted only by primitive tribes in the semi arid & arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia, and in Rajasthan, J & K in India.

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